Thursday, August 27, 2020

Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids: Balance of Essential Dietary Lipids For Good Health Essay

Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated unsaturated fats are significant lipids which are acquired by the body mostly from fish, nut, vegetable and seed oils. These are biomolecules which ought to essentially be consolidated in the eating regimen for legitimate turn of events, physical and conduct works in people and creatures. Our capacity to orchestrate these unsaturated fats or to interconvert them from different atoms is deflected by the nonappearance of catalysts required for their creation of change in the body. This class of unsaturated fats is described by an even-numbered aliphatic chain beginning from a carboxylic carbon and closure in a methyl gathering. The structure has at least two all-cis twofold securities (polyunsaturated), the first is found three or six carbons from the methyl (omega) carbon, thus the name, omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated unsaturated fats (PUFA). They are additionally parts of the phospholipid bilayer which envelope cells and organelles and are changed over to different atoms, for example, eicosanoids including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes and different particles ensnared in invulnerable responses and signs. Likewise due to their wellbeing suggestions, they are subject of many exploration considers which expect to improve certain ailments, discovering elective sources and deciding the ideal sums in the eating routine for boosted medical advantages. Lipids are a different class of biomolecules that are recognized from different classes due to their dissolvability in non polar solvents. This is because of the generally enormous hydrophobic segment, as a rule comprising of an aliphatic hydrocarbon chain or ring joined to other practical gatherings. Being subsidiaries of carboxylic acids, they can experience similar responses ordinary of carboxylic acids. Therefore, they may join with alcohols to create acyl mixes called esters. This very response takes into consideration a different exhibit of lipid structures. They discover use as segments of the phone layers helping in insurance and ease of the lipid bilayer; for vitality stockpiling as a result of their oxidation potential, along these lines, they produce plentiful measures of warmth during fat copying; as body separator since fat is a poor conductor of warmth and forestalls heat misfortune through the skin; as instruments for atomic acknowledgment between appended moieties (generally proteins) and the hydrophobic condition and defensive covering of tissues among others. This huge gathering is grouped dependent on their structure as follows: (an) unsaturated fats and subordinates, (b) triacylglycerols, (c) wax esters, (d) phospholipids, (e) sphingolipids, and (f) isoprenoids (1). Triacylglycerols are esterification results of glycerol and three unsaturated fats. They are significant parts of fat cells and are commonly utilized as vitality saves. These particles can experience saponification responses which produces carboxylate salts of cleanser. Phospholipids are the major basic parts of films and discover use as emulsifiers and surfactants because of the nearness of a little polar head spoke to by the charged phosphate gathering. They may likewise be utilized as defensive covers of little particles and probiotics (2). Wax esters are significant segments of leaves, leafy foods hide. They might be blends of numerous sorts of utilitarian gatherings, for example, alcohols, aldehydes and sterols. Sphingolipids are hydrophobic amino alcohols which are commonly discovered creating creature layers. It is additionally discovered covering the myelin sheath of neurons and aids the transmission of messages in the cerebrum. The isoprene ring is trademark structure of isoprenoids. They are recognized from other lipid classes by a five carbon unit, methylbutadiene. Instances of this class incorporate basic oils which are blends of terpenes giving foods grown from the ground their trademark fragrance; carotenoids which are plant colors that have the structure of tetraterpene, nutrient E, nutrient K, ubiquinone and a few hormones (1). The omega-3 and omega-9 polyunsaturated unsaturated fats (PUFA) are significant instances of lipids having a place with the principal gathering. Instances of this class are suitably called basic unsaturated fats on the grounds that these atoms should be enhanced in the eating routine since our body comes up short on the proteins for its union. These incorporate the short chain PUFA which are thusly antecedents of other long chain omega-3 and omega-9 PUFA. Unsaturated fats that can be integrated in by the body as a result of existing pathways and catalysts are alluded to as unimportant unsaturated fats (3). This paper talks about the structure of omega-3 and omega-6 unsaturated fats, their biochemical capacities, items and applications particularly in keeping up great wellbeing and handles current disclosures with respect to their change to new atoms, issues concerning expanded dietary admission and wellbeing possibilities. Classification and structure Fatty acids are combined in the liver and fat cytoplasm through the unsaturated fat synthase and malonyl CoA a forerunner. The chain increments by two carbons at each round of the response catalyzed by a novel compound complex until it frames an immersed unsaturated fat containing 16 carbons (palmitic corrosive). Through a progression of stretching, decrease, lack of hydration and desaturation responses different sorts of unsaturated fats are delivered. The response can join twofold bonds up to the ninth carbon in mammalian framework since the necessary proteins are missing thus we rely upon plant hotspots for these fundamental unsaturated fats (3). Omega-6 polyunsaturated unsaturated fats Fatty acids are called such in view of the connection of a long hydrophobic tail made of an aliphatic chain to a carboxylic corrosive utilitarian gathering. This carboxylic carbon is alluded to, in classification, as the ? carbon. The chain is ended by a methyl bunch allocated as the ? position. Polyunsaturated unsaturated fats are portrayed by the nearness of conjugated alkene bunches in the cis affirmation. Subsequently, the situation of the twofold bond can be demonstrated from the carboxylic carbon or from the methyl end. In this way, linoleic corrosive, an unsaturated fat with eighteen carbons and with two twofold securities at carbons 9 and 12 from the carboxylic end can be assigned as 18:2? 9,12. The dietary profile of the admission of unsaturated fats likewise decides the unsaturated fat piece of the phospholipid twofold layer. The last can be surveyed by deciding the profiles of lipids from erythrocytes and plasma lipids, just as recognizing the layer smoothness utilizing scientific procedures (5). Another technique for estimating layer ease incorporates the utilization of different fluorescent markers which can label protein particles that are implanted in the lipid bilayer. The inclination of the hued markers to blend relies upon the capacity of the proteins to travel through the film over the long haul. The FRAP technique, fluorescence recuperation in the wake of photobleaching, can likewise be identified with the ease of films since it can quantify horizontal dispersion. This strategy exploits the capacity of laser to fade a pre stamped fluorescent bit. As the layer moves, shading is recovered and pictured utilizing video hardware. Tests joined to the layer can likewise be distinguished by atomic attractive reverberation (NMR) spectroscopy (1). Arachidonic corrosive is likewise a significant unsaturated fat segment of phospholipids. The serious extent of unsaturation guarantees that the lipid bilayer is adaptable and liquid even at somewhat lower temperatures. The trademark four conjugated twofold bonds forestall hardening at physiological temperatures and commonly experience alkene responses, for example, oxidation. Its pKa is additionally fit to direct its solvency in the watery and hydrophobic parts of the cell. In the salt structure, it very well may be solvated by water yet returns to its hydrophobic structure once the salt responds with free H+ in arrangement (6). Eicosanoid blend Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated unsaturated fats are likewise engineered forerunners of autocrine controllers called eicosanoids. Arachidonic corrosive is vital to numerous pathways in the creation of eicosanoids. These arachidonic corrosive determined atoms, which incorporate prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes, are hard to dissect in view of their restricted focuses and brief times of action. The atoms are generally discharged as a reaction to insusceptible responses activated by diseases and antigen assault (1). What's more, they trigger sub-atomic falls which can influence even the outflow of lipid processing chemicals and present dangers in metabolic disarranges (7). The eicosanoid combination is interceded by two gatherings of catalysts and is accomplished through the pathways using cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase (8). Prostaglandins include a cyclopentane ring in its structure with alcoholic utilitarian gatherings at carbons in position eleven and fifteen. They are named as PGXy (prostaglandins) ordered by letters (represented by X) while y (addendum) showed the quantity of twofold bonds found in the structure. Distinctive letter classes are demonstrated by similitudes in the utilitarian gathering connected to the center structure yet the gathering got from arachidonic corrosive is one of the most noteworthy. They are significant particles that imply irritation responses during disease and torment and are associated with solid constrictions during birthing occasions and ovulation. Evidently, they additionally have shifting jobs relying upon the kind of cell and tissue where they are created (1). Indeed, both omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA discover significance in the amalgamation of prostaglandins. The items from each, be that as it may, have various activities. Prostaglandins coming about because of omega-3 PUFA have mitigating capacities, while that orchestrated from omega-6 are incendiary. Consequently, the proportion of omega-3 and omega-6 unsaturated fats is significant in light of the fact that these particles seek similar chemicals and the combination items should supplement one another (9). Thromboxanes are cyclic ether subsidiaries of eicosanoids whose name can be represented

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The eNotes Blog The Nature of Leadership Engaging our Youth to Become BetterLeaders

The Nature of Leadership Engaging our Youth to Become BetterLeaders Astounding authority aptitudes can easily fall into place for a few, yet earlyâ experiences sway our grown-up administration potential. At a youthful age, youngsters figure out how to create authority aptitudes by being nurturedâ andâ encouraged by grown-ups, for example, guardians, relatives, educators and parental figures. Qualitiesâ imposed byâ adults, for example, moral turn of events, correspondence, and decent variety can all significantly influence the manner in which youngsters become pioneers. Ponder your own authority characteristics to perceive how you can better impactâ young grown-ups to becomeâ future pioneers. Moral Developmentâ Youngsters learn important initiative abilities during their youth, for example, correspondence, association, critical thinking, and even innovativeness. A pioneer is somebody numerous individuals look to for heading, motivation, and direction. As a grown-up, enhancing a child’s life as ahead of schedule as conceivable with authority aptitudes, encounters, and information, is fundamental to their grown-up initiative potential for the last partâ of their life. This incorporates social and social standards, just as decides andâ laws that can impact a child’s appropriate mentality and behaviors. Adults have a solid capacity to help shape profound quality inside kids by showing the contrast among good and bad, how to see things from another’s perspective, and how to work with others in group circumstances. What would you be able to do to fortify good turn of events? The most ideal approach to encourage ethics and morals is through model. It is critical to make a strong good code-a code that will control kids to go to bat for their convictions and act right, even without us. Look for moral issues and discussion about incredibly up: from TV shows and news occasions to circumstances at home, school, and with companions. Educate your youngster how you feel concerning the issue and why. Aâ childs moral advancement is a continuous procedure, and you are somebody who can be a positive model and ingrain convictions, information and propensities that will be the establishment your youngsters use always (act carefully!). More on moral improvement â†' Communicationâ Correspondence with youngsters at a youthful age is basic to the initiative aptitudes they relate to as grown-ups. While kids may need to hear messages rehashed a few times, it is ideal to gain from great correspondence and perceiving how others react to them. It is essential to show successful administration conduct to kids and speak with them so they can adequately become familiar with the differenceâ between good and bad through an arrangement of experimentation. Childrenâ are naturally attracted to the great virtues, however grown-ups who draw in kids in great conduct, permit themâ opportunities to work admirably, and offer applause when suitable are probably going to fortify a child’s authority abilities at an exceptionally youthful age. Quite a bit of a child’s administration abilities are created during their time at school. In an article by Ann Lieberman titled Can Teachers Really Be Leaders? she states â€Å"Teachers who become pioneers are in a special situation to get change going. They have taken in a lot about how to show well and expertise to construct the sort of school and homeroom conditions that can help change schools. Without an uncertainty, educators assume a colossal job, regardless of whether they understand it or not, in creating authority inside their understudies, their study hall, and theirâ entire school. Educators expect to serve others and have any kind of effect in the lives of their understudies and, thusly, help shape what's to come. What would you be able to do to empower relational abilities? At school, extracurricular exercises, for example, understudy government gatherings, sports, and clubs all can draw in youthful grown-ups in turning out to be better future pioneers. Effectively being engaged with any of those regions permits open doors for the improvement of correspondence just as group building experiences. The authority abilities picked up from ones individual association in extracurricular exercises is particularly significant during ones scholarly vocation. For example,â college confirmations workplaces are regularly searching for more than understudies with incredible gradestheyâ are searching for understudies with extraordinary contribution in games, school clubs, and network associations. Diversityâ Considering assorted variety inside initiative permits a gathering of pioneers to be made who have a comprehension and thankfulness towards people’s contrasts and interesting characteristics. Children finding out about decent variety at home, yet in addition inâ academia, makes various situations where peoples’ contrasts and one of a kind attributes will be featured as a helpful aptitude. Having kids get decent variety and executing its significance at a youthful age will help and urge them to cooperate with others and offer them a chance to find out about the independences of people around them. Empowering greater decent variety inside our lives and actualizing a more noteworthy information about assorted variety to kids is incredibly gainful to society by permitting them toâ recognize others with various abilities, encounters, mentalities, and foundations. What would you be able to do to energize decent variety? Be liberal and find out about issues and worries of others. Become acquainted with individuals who are unique in relation to you by putting forth a cognizant attempt to be uncovered toâ people who act, talk, look or love uniquely in contrast to yourself, and think about the words and effects of your activities. Model this kind of conduct to youth through your ordinary day by day associations. Decent variety can make interest and an enthusiasm for various people groups and societies. Ingraining these qualities and convictions, particularly in our childhood, of tolerating others in spite of dissimilarities permits our general public to meet up and work in solidarity with others. Kids that are presented to decent variety at a more youthful age will at that point grow up to become pioneers that can work across contrasts and help groups towards a shared objective. More on decent variety â†' Administration is a Continuous Process All things considered, the improvement of authority abilities inside one’s life is a proceeding with process that never closes. Administration begins at a youthful age when youngsters are gaining from their folks, instructors, and society. This advancement at that point proceeds through secondary school and youthful adulthood where we experience different circumstances and figure out how to function through these circumstances with others. Everybody can learn new abilities and be advanced with new encounters that assist them with improving as a pioneer in our general public. Moral turn of events, correspondence, and assorted variety are parts of initiative aptitudes that are educated to youngsters by grown-ups and learned and experienced by kids at a youthful age. There is nothing of the sort as an ideal chief, but instead a pioneer who dedicates his-or herselfâ to expanding their insight and involvement in the desire for bettering others. The expectation of bettering others can start with being productive good examples and pioneers to the adolescent in our general public.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Helping aspiring teachers reach higher with new Official Praxis® Core Prep

Helping aspiring teachers reach higher with new Official Praxis ® Core Prep Teachers and students are the heart of all that we do at Khan Academy. That’s why it was a no-brainer for us to partner with ETS,  the makers of the Praxis ® exams, to help aspiring teachers enter the profession. Our new Khan Academy Official Praxis ® Core Prep is a free, first-of-its-kind preparation resource which is now available for tomorrow’s educators.  Watch our announcement videoAspiring teachers can use Official Praxis ® Core Prep to create a personalized learning plan to prepare for the Praxis ® Core Academic Skills for Educators (Core) test, a key exam for many candidates entering teacher preparation programs. Using Official Praxis ® Core Prep can strengthen the reading, writing, and math skills needed to succeed on the Praxis ® Core test, in teacher preparation programs, and in the classroom.    There are a lot of resources out there that say they will help you, but they are expensive and you never know if they will really help, said Vivica Foster, an aspiring teache r in Ohio who was part of the Official Praxis ® Core Prep beta test. Not only is it amazing that this program is free, but the number and variety of practice questions available really tested my knowledge and prepared me for test day.            Together, Khan Academy and ETS hope to widen the path to teacher preparation programs and help diversify the teacher pipeline. A recent study by the National Bureau of Economic Research underscores the importance of diversifying the pool of teachers. The study shows that having a Black teacher increases Black students’ high school graduation rates and likelihood of enrolling in college.                  Official Praxis ® Core Prep diagnoses teacher candidate’s strengths and weaknesses. Each learner then receives a personalized study plan to remediate skill gaps and help them succeed on test day. Official Praxis ® Core Prep guides teacher candidates through a series of in-depth instructional materialsâ€"including practice ques tions, videos, and tipsâ€"that meet their unique needs. The program focuses on key subject matter areas and takes into consideration the time available to study for the test.Khan Academy has a proven track record of leveling the playing field by providing access to high-quality test prep resources. Official Praxis ® Core Prep is Khan Academy’s third free and official test prep program for high-stakes standardized exams. In 2015, Khan Academy launched Official SAT Practice with the College Board. Research shows this resource has driven substantial SAT score improvements regardless of gender, family income, race, or ethnicity with similar usage rates across demographics. In 2018 Khan Academy launched Official LSAT Prep, which is being used by more and more by aspiring law students, particularly African Americans, women, and economically disadvantaged students.  To explore Khan Academy Official Praxis ® Core Prep and begin practicing, visit

Monday, May 25, 2020

Security versus Liberty in the US Fight Against Terror Essay

It is now 64 years since George Orwell released the famous futuristic novel â€Å"1984†. In the book he describes a frightening society with omnipresent government surveillance. Big Brother is watching you. His novel has never been more relevant than after the war against terror gave the government reason to increase the surveillance. The war against terror is bringing us closer to Orwells dystopian society. Do we have to pay this high price to win the war against terror? After 9/11, the USA and the rest of the world were in shock. To keep the American people calm the government had to act fast. On the same day as the attack of the Twin Towers, President George W. Bush declared war on terrorism. On October the 26th 2001, the USA Patriot Act†¦show more content†¦The Patriot Act gave the FBI mandate to search without warrant, eavesdrop and detain and deport terrorism suspects. Despite all this effort the US once again experienced terror attacks in 2011 as the Tsarnev brothers executed the Boston Marathon bombings, killing 3 and injuring 264 people. Investigations showed that these radical Islamists had been under the radar for quite some time. They had even been warned by the Russian Federal Security Service about the Chechen brothers turning towards radicalism. (2013, Wikipedia) The result of this was that the President gave more powers to the FBI, once again weakening the principals of the Rechtsstaat. The FBI could now arrest and interrogate without reading them their rights as well as interviewing witnesses without identifying themselves as FBI agents. The government is gradually sacrificing liberty in the fight against terror. It looks like the liberty will lose more and more terrain in the years to come. (2013) In April 2005, Americans were asked whether they thought the Patriot Act went too far or not. The result was surprising, 30% of the people asked thought that the Act gave the government too much power, while 41% believed that it did not. The poll also showed that the people who knew a lot about the Patriot Act mostly believed that it went too far, 45%, 37 % said about right and 17% did notShow MoreRelated Controversy ove the Patriot Act Essay2105 Words   |  9 Pagesact is viewed with utmost contempt for its Orwellian nature allowing Big Brother to read your email and look through your library records. The security versus liberty debate prevails with both sides citing legal and ethical reasons in support or in opposition to this controversial act. Hastily passed with virtually no debate forty five days after the terror attacks of September 11, the USA PATRIOT act’s stated purpose is to â€Å"deter and punish terrorist acts in the United States and around the worldRead MoreThe Civil War Has Changed The Country987 Words   |  4 Pagesour nation’s beliefs and freedoms; fought to preserve the Union, this war shaped what America was and would become. The Civil War changed the notion of what liberty was, the transition from negative freedom to positive freedom is an influential aspect of American idealism. The ideal of liberty that emerged from the Civil War, was that the liberty came from the power of freedom (McPherson, 1991). Future wars were fought on the notion of protecting and expanding American interpretation of freedom; andRead MoreThe USA Patriot Act Essay1501 Words   |  7 Pagescrossed the threshold of violating civil liberties this county and those living in it were guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States. â€Å"On October 26, 2001, the Public Law 107-56, Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism, also known as the USA Patriot Act, was signed into effect† (Stern, 2004, p. 1112). While speaking to Congress, President George Bush stated, â€Å"Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorist† (SternRead MoreLegal Constraints And Its Effect On The War On Terror1298 Words   |  6 PagesThe war on terror, following the events of 9/11, made people acknowledge a new form of enemy. Terrorisms became the central focus of nations and various actions were taken to ensure that such a horrendous act never transpires again. However, the problems associated with these legal constraints has led to many international law violations. This paper will seek to discuss these legal constraints and its effect on the war on terror. In order to demonstrate this, the principles of distinction, proportio nalityRead MoreUnderstanding Of Securitization By Breaking Down Discourse1413 Words   |  6 Pages What the Ethiopian case represents, nevertheless, is the role of the fourth claim. At the point when making the case that one s practices and/or character don t represent a risk however are rather under danger, security remains the predominant casing of reference and securitisation the core procedure locked in. To put it plainly, one is fighting securitisation with securitisation. Even more dangerously, however, as the evidences from Ethiopia uncovers, the very markers used to portray one s threatenedRead MoreEssay about Fighting Terrorism Without Invading Privacy1818 Words   |  8 Pagesâ€Å"In the long, twilight struggle against Communism, we had been reminded that the very liberties that we sought to preserve could not be sacrificed at the altar of national security â€Å" (â€Å"Obama’s Speech On†¦Ã¢â‚¬  1). One of these very civil liberties, recently recognized by the United Nations, is the â€Å"right to privacy in the digital age†. Although the action s of the United Nations are not legally binding, it is evident that the right to Internet privacy is becoming increasingly important in the internationalRead MoreHls 410 Essay2780 Words   |  12 PagesRunning head: HOMELAND SECURITY 410 - FINAL PROJECT TOPIC Provide a synopsis of the article written by Professor Alan Dershowitz. Then identify and describe the critical issues addressed in the article. In your paper, thoroughly discuss and evaluate the following concepts: the ticking time bomb hypothesis; Dershowitzs comments regarding Jeremy Bentham as well as his comments about Voltaires views; and the three ways to deal with the use of torture in the ticking time bomb situationRead MoreEssay on War of Terroism1809 Words   |  8 Pagesrights be sacrificed in order to protect themselves from terrorism. While suspending these rights make the fight on terrorism easier, it comes with a high democratic toll. In recent years, new body-scanners have been implemented at many airports which are in violation of ones rights and freedoms. Anti-terrorism tactics have been exlimplying how the government has gone too far in the fight against terrorism. In the past 20 years, over one-half of the impoverished countries in this world have enduredRead MoreIndividual Privacy vs National Security5833 Words   |  24 PagesIndividual Privacy VS National Security John Williams ENG 122: GSE 1244A Instructor: Ebony Gibson November 1, 2012 Individual Privacy VS National Security Introduction Since the terrorist attack of 9/11, America has been in a high level conflict with terrorist around the world, particularly the group known as Al Qaeda. There has been many discussions within the U.S. Congress about the measures of how to effectively combat this organization and their members, here and abroad. ConsequentlyRead MorePolitical Dispute Over Mass Surveillance Technology2165 Words   |  9 Pagesgovernment agencies such as the FBI, CIA, and most prominently the NSA versus civil society groups like American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), and Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), as well as powerful people like Edward Snowden, and technology companies including Microsoft, Apple, Twitter, and Google (Nakashima 2015). These sides are clear. Which is understandable. Those government agencies were founded on the notion of protecting us, and that is a standard that as Americans we have come to expect

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Morals vs. Instinct in The Lord of the Flies by William...

The Lord of the Flies, by William Golding, is an allegory that connects the boys’ behavior in the novel to the basic behavior of human nature. In the novel, the boys fear a wild beast that has the potential to kill them off. However, Simon, a quiet boy, finds that the beast is not an animal that everyone should fear, but is a part of each boy himself. As Simon wanders back to a beautiful meadow that he had traveled to before, he finds that it has changed. Instead of the peaceful meadow that Simon had discovered previously, the bloody head of a sow impaled by Jack and his follows taints the meadow. They had done this as an offering to the beast, hoping that the beast would be satisfied with the sow’s head and would give up hunting for the†¦show more content†¦See?†(Golding 144). Simon, in shock of what the Lord of the Flies says to him, â€Å"knew that one of his times was coming on†(Golding 143). His emotional distress triggers his body to lose all consciousness. The encounter with the Lord of the Flies supports Simon’s thoughts that the beast that the boys are hunting for is not an actual animal. The Lord of the Flies tries to persuade Simon to let go of his rational thoughts and be taken over by his primal instincts in order to have fun like the other boys. However, when Simon’s silence declares that he refuses to let go of logic and rationality, the Lord of the Flies realizes that Simon knows what the beast really is—the innermost part of the boys. Simon seems to make this connection that the Lord of the Flies is representational to the inner beast within the boys almost instantly. â€Å"His gaze was held by that ancient, inescapable recognition†(Golding 139). Simon instantly The Lord of the Flies quickly makes the connection, too. â€Å"You knew, didn’t you? I’m part of you? Close, close, close! I’m the reason why it’s no go? Why things are what they are?† (Golding, 1 ). Th e Lord of the Flies is symbolic to all the evil that is in humans. As Simon realizes that he was right about the beast, he tries to go back to the other boys to warn them about his discovery, but the Lord of the Flies gets angry. â€Å"This is ridiculous. You know perfectly well you’ll only meet me down there—so don’t try toShow MoreRelatedLord of the Flies by William Golding932 Words   |  4 Pagesdiscussing two particular themes from a novel called Lord of the Flies by William Golding. Lord of the Flies was written in 1954 after World War II. Ruler of the Flies is a purposeful anecdote about something that many readers can’t really describe. Individuals cant choose precisely what. Its either about the inalienable underhanded of man, or mental battle, or religion, or personal inclination, or the creators emotions on war; however William Golding was in the Navy throughout World War II, or perhapsRead MoreGood Versus Evil in Lord of the Flies by Willia m Golding Essay1235 Words   |  5 PagesGood vs. Evil Many years ago, Charles Darwin introduced a theory that we humans are a species which evolved from animals that have inhabited the Earth for many years, and he believed that we were civilized, intelligent, and logical life forms for these very reasons. In the novel, Lord of the Flies by William Golding there is a prominent theme of good versus evil which reveals that maybe humans are not the civilized human beings that they were said to be. William Golding carefully netted this themeRead MoreTheme Of Lord Of The Flies And The Guide Essay1407 Words   |  6 PagesMD. Moazzam Hossain ID NO. 133013040 ENG 302 The Novel-1 Submitted to: Ms Arifa Rahaman Date: 09.12.2015 Theme of ‘Lord of The Flies’ and ‘The Guide’ ‘Lord of the flies’(1954) and ‘The guide’(1958) are the two novels written by famous novelists William Golding and R.K. Narayan. ‘Lord of the Flies’ portrays the story of a group of British boys trapped on an abandoned island who try to administrate themselves with catastrophic results and On the other side, R.K. Narayan quite consciouslyRead MoreLord of the Flies3107 Words   |  13 PagesLord of the Flies William Golding In Between the Modern and the Postmodern Content: 1. Fragments chosen.............................................................................. 2. In Between the Modern and the Postmodern - essey........................ 3. Questions.............................................................................................. 4. Bibliography........................................................................................ [Read MoreWilliam Golding s Lord Of The Flies1444 Words   |  6 PagesInterviewer Let’s talk about William Golding and his most famous book, Lord of the Flies, in which a group of British schoolboys - aged from around 6-12 - become stranded on an island, and quickly begin their descent into chaos. Today, I am joined by literarian and William Golding expert, Lara Caglar. Expert Hi, Vanessa, it’s a pleasure to be here Interviewer Together, we will be discussing the question on everyone’s minds, what happened to Golding that led him to have such an incredibly negativeRead MoreLord Of The Flies Literary Analysis1191 Words   |  5 Pages â€Å"Lord of the Flies† written by William Golding and published in 1954 is an allegory and social commentary that takes place on a deserted tropical island. An island that becomes populated when a plane crashes and leaves British schoolboys stranded. The group of boys attempt to recreate the civilization they came from, by choosing a leader: Ralph but, Jack wants to lead also, which causes the boys to little by little leave civility and form into savages. The microcosm Golding creates exploresRead MoreComparing The Novel Lord Of The Flies And Heart Of Darkness2292 Words   |  10 PagesTopic: Comparing behavior of two main characters from two different books Introduction There are both similarities and differences between the protagonists of the Novels Lord of the Flies† (Golding) and â€Å"Heart of Darkness† (Conrad). In each case we have the supposedly civilized individual(s) degenerating into savagery. As well, other characters are involved and highly influenced by the protagonist(s). This report discusses these two books and what can be observed from comparing works of essentiallyRead MoreLord Of Flies By William Golding1508 Words   |  7 Pages In the ‘Lord of flies’ by William Golding, the theme of civilization vs. Savagery is explored. When a bunch of children are stranded on an island, the conflict between savagery and the rules of civilization begins to split the boys into two groups. Throughout the novel, the conflict is exaggerated by the two main characters, Ralph and Jack. While Ralph uses his abilities to control the kids and be civilized on the island. Jack lets his impulses get to him and creates a gro up of which act like savagesRead Morelord of the flies notebook check4355 Words   |  20 Pagesï » ¿Lord of the Flies Notebook Check 1. â€Å"Why Boys Become Vicious† Author Study 2. Vocabulary 3. Characterization 4. Plot/Conflict 5. Symbolism 6. Allegory 7. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 Questions 8. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 Questions 9. Chapters 7, 8, and 9 Questions 10. Chapters 10, 11, and 12 Questions Notebook Check #1: â€Å"Why Boys Become Vicious† Author Study â€Å"Why Boys Become Vicious† (1989) William Golding Written in response to the murder of a two-year-old boy by two twelve-year-old boys. AnswerRead MoreComparing The Novels Lord Of The Flies And Heart Of Darkness4107 Words   |  17 PagesThere are both similarities and differences between the protagonists of the Novels Lord of the Flies† (Golding) and â€Å"Heart of Darkness† (Conrad). In each case we have the supposedly civilized individual(s) degenerating into savagery. As well, other characters are involved and highly influenced by the protagonist(s). This report discusses these two books and what can be observed from comparing works of essentially different world perspectives – one was published in 1902 and the other in 1954

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Autobiography of Ruskin Bond - 2057 Words

Life and career Ruskin Bond was born in a military hospital in [Kasauli] to Edith Clerke and Aubrey Bond. His siblings were Ellen and William. Ruskin’s father was with the Royal Air Force. When Bond was four years old, his mother was separated from his father and married a Punjabi-Hindu, Mr. Hari, who himself had been married once. Bond spent his early childhood in Jamnagar and Shimla. At the age of ten Ruskin went to live at his grandmothers house in Dehradun after his fathers sudden death in 1944 from malaria. Ruskin was raised by his mother, who remarried an Indian businessman. He completed his schooling at Bishop in Shimla, from where he graduated in 1952 after having been successful in winning several writing competitions in the†¦show more content†¦His novel, The Flight of Pigeons, has been adapted into the Merchant Ivory film Junoon. The Room on the Roof has been adapted into a BBC-produced TV series. Several stories have been incorporated in the school curriculum in India, in cluding The Night Train at Deoli, Time Stops at Shamli, and Our Trees Still Grow in Dehra. In 2007, the Bollywood director Vishal Bharadwaj made a film based on his popular novel for children, The Blue Umbrella. The movie Works †¢ House †¢ Garland of Memories †¢ The Boy Who Broke the Bank †¢ Bus Stop, Pipalnagar †¢ Funny Side Up †¢ Rain in the Mountains-Notes from the Himalayas †¢ Our trees still grow in Dehra †¢ A Season of Ghosts †¢ Tigers Forever †¢ A Town Called Dehra †¢ An island of trees †¢ The Night Train at Deoli †¢ A Face in the Dark and Other Hauntings †¢ Potpourri †¢ The Adventures Of rusty †¢ The Lost Ruby †¢ Crazy times with Uncle Ken †¢ The Death Of Trees †¢ Tales and Legends from India †¢ Hip Hop Nature Boy and Other Poems Novels †¢ Room On The Roof †¢ Vagrants in the Valley †¢ Scenes from a Writers Life †¢ Susannas Seven Husbands †¢ A Flight of Pigeons †¢ Landour Days – A writers Journal †¢ The Sensualist by Ruskin Bond †¢ The Road To The Bazaar †¢ The Panthers Moon †¢ Once Upon A Monsoon Time †¢ The India I love †¢ The Kashmiri Storyteller †¢ The Blue Umbrella †¢ The TigerShow MoreRelatedRuskin Bond1411 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction A lot has been written about Ruskin Bond, our very own Indian writer, whose writing s span over 50 years. His versatile, original and elegant style of writing has made him a favourite to readers around the world. Despite Bonds British background, he writes about India as an insider’s perspective. Having lived the majority of his life in India, he knows the country well and writes an authenticity and emotional engagement about the land and the people of the Himalayas and small-town IndiaRead MoreThe Eyes Have It -- by Ruskin Bond1183 Words   |  5 PagesThe Eyes Have It (also known as The Girl on the Train The Eyes Are Not Here) is a short story by Ruskin Bond that was originally published in Contemporary Indian English Stories. The narrator of this story, a blind man whose eyes were sensitive only to light and darkness, was going to Dehradun by train when he met a girl and had a chit-chat with her. It was only after she left and another passenger came into the compartment that the narrator realizes the girl was blind. Up to Rohana, the narratorRead MoreWomen s Rights Of Women1987 Words   |  8 PagesPeriod. In Pre-Independence time, the writers bearing in mind Rabindranath Tagore, Raja Rao, Sir Aurobindo, Swami Vivekanand, M.K. Gandhi, and Jawaharlal Nehru proved their writing notable. Autobiographies, informative articles, novels, prose, poetry are remarkable in Indian English Literature writings of Ruskin Bond, Salman Rushdie, Vikram Seth, and R.K. Narayan give prestigious image to Indian writings in English. Female writers existed with different themes in society. The discrimination in genderRead MorePunjabi9291 Words   |  38 Pagesbut from the perennial wisdom of lndian thought and from such non-modernist Western thinkers as Tolstoy, Ruskin and Thoresu. From the tradition of lndian thought, Gandhi derived the cognitive-evaluative principles of satya (truth) and ahimsa (non-violence or love towards others), which he says should inform our political, economic, scientific and technological a ctivities. I n his autobiography, entitled The Story of My Experiments with Truth, he wrote: 1 t i L Gaadlhu :Evdlltlon and Chmder

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Psychology Alzheimers Disease

Question: Discuss about thePsychologyfor Alzheimer's Disease. Answer: Introduction Alzheimer's disease is progressive neurodenerative disease. In this disease individual specifically loses memory, judgment, cognitive function and consequently physical activity. It also leads to aphasia, apraxia, agnosis and disturbance in the preparation, establishing, sequencing and abstracting. Dementia results in the prominent diminishing of social functioning and drops in the prior level of functioning. These changes are predictable and are associated with cognitive and sensorimotor changes. Alzheimer's disease generally begins after the age of 60 and its onset may happen at the age of 40. Psychological development in the children and adolescence affects in different ways like identity, emotions and relation with parents and peers. Patient with the dementia cant express feelings and emotions and these patients feel like loss of self-esteem (Prado-Jeanetal., 2010). Patients with dementia exhibit dysfunction of the motor function and this can be motor retardation or motor hyperac tivity. Sleep pattern changes are very common in elderly patients, however, it is more prevalent and predominant in the patients with dementia. In studies it has been observed that patients with dementia generally sleep in the daytime and awake at the night time (Rongve et al., 2010). There can be change in the eating pattern in the patients with dementia. These patients prefer to eat more sweet, however it has been observed that there is body weight loss in dementia due to increased metabolic rate. These all the factors affects both physical and psychological development of the patient. These physical and psychological symptoms are evident in the patient with dementia at the early stage of the disease (Monastero et al., 2009). Reisberg (1984), stated that Alzheimer's disease dementia can take individual from adolescence to the infancy. Child like behavior of the adult individual occurs mainly due to the occurrence of Alzheimers disease and this condition is very traumatic and mystifying for family members. These children like behaviors include angry burst, fright and continuous demand for attention from others. These adults should be treated like children and it is termed as infantilizing. These patients cant express their feelings verbally due to the cognitive impairment. These patients express it through pacing or screaming and it should be considered as the adaptive development in the patient. Caretaking of such individuals is very frustrating for the family members and caretakers. Caregivers generally associated with agitation, insomnia and impaired daily activities. In studies, it has been established that there is decline on the acquisition of the routine activities like bathing and dressing in the g rowing children. This decline in the function in almost equal to the time of acquisition of these functions in the children (Reisberg, 1985; Nolen, 1988). Cognition and social behavior in the children and elder people with cognitive development problem like dementia, is almost similar. Infant age is unstable and the same is the case with adult individual with developmental dementia. Children are more sensitive and generally they are more observant of the novel and attractive things around them. Patient with the dementia also exhibit the similar type of behavior. Similar like infant and children, dementia patients also test their actions on the surrounding environment. Children perform tasks in organized or unorganized way based on the stage of the development of the children. However, patients with cognitive impairment lost their cognitive skills and these people shift their functioning from the organized to unorganized direction. Generally it has been observed that children are les s egocentric as they progress in their age. However, dementia patients become more egocentric as there is progression of the disease condition. Imitation is the very common phenomenon observed in the children and same has been exhibited by patients with dementia. Language skill and the thought process are completely different in children as compared to the adults. However, in adults with dementia language skill and thought process almost become similar to the children (Matteson et al., 1996). Thus, it is clearly evident that impairment in the psychological development through dementia results in the reversal in the functioning and social behavior of the children. Theory: Even though there is the criticism about the Piagets theory because observations made in this theory were based on own children and way of demonstration of observation, this theory is widely acceptable for understanding the cognitive development and impairment in children. There were studies conducted which exhibited application of Piagets theory for understanding cognitive development at different stages of life (Ginsberg Opper, 1979; LaFrancois, 1982). Piagets theory is useful in the understanding of the acquirement of the thinking ability and individual with dementia exhibits reverse trend as compared to the Piagets theory. Individuals with dementia exhibit more decline in cognitive function with increase in the age. Piaget stated that patients with the dementia pass through the stage like sensorimotor and preoperational stages. Identification of the particular stage of development in the patient with dementia can be helpful in planning specific intervention for these patients. H ence, dementia affects proper development of individual. Piaget states that adolescence individual are more able to think hypothetically as compared to the children and acquiring power of the adolescence individual is highest as compared the any stage of the life. A study conducted on the individuals of the age group 10 14 years found that these teenagers can organize things more efficiently as compared to the less age group people. It reflects an adolescence individual has more cognitive ability than the children. Younger adults perform effectively in the tasks where rate of cognitive function allocation is more. In tasks like vocabulary, reasoning capability and social decision making, older participants perform effectively as compared to the younger participants. Piagets theory was developed different frameworks and tests for the assessment of cognitive and behavior development in the infants, children, and adolescents. However, fewer studies are available for the application of Piagetss theory in adults. Emery Breslau, (1987) conducted study in the adults by using Piagets frame work and tests. Authors applied five tasks for the evaluation of concrete operations and it was observed that there was significant difference between the normal adults and the adults with dementia in performing concrete operations tasks. Thornbury (1993), evaluated Piagets theory in adults with the use of Infant Psychological Development Scale and concrete operational scale. Author did little modification to the framework of the Piaget. This study confirmed the relationship between the cognitive development and Piagets observations. Ordinal Scales of Psychological Development can also be used in the identification of cognitive parameters of the patients with dementia. Current Research: Barca et al., (2016) conducted study to evaluate experience of children in their development whose parents were associated with the young-onset dementia. Data was collected by interviewing 12 female and 2 female children of parents with early onset dementia. These children expresses that there was conflict in the family during their developmental age. It was also observed that there was augmented level of stress in the children who stayed for longer time with dementia parents. These children also expressed requirement of personal centered care for such type of children. There were different tests available for the diagnosis of dementia in the individual. These tests comprise of tests of language, executive function and some measures of global cognition. These were applied in different geographical areas and on the people with different culture. It was evident from the study that these tests could not be applied uniformly in all the cultures. There should be specific dementia diagnost ic tests based on the cultural background of the person (Weissberger et al., 2013). In the research related to the dementia, it is very much required to evaluate the relation between memory impairment and memory function. It has observed in studies there is no direct relation between the memory impairment and memory function. Loss in memory function is also associated with other factors like memory type, depression and distresses about increased age (Pearman, 2014). Planning for the future requires cognitive involvement and this ability of planning changes with the increasing age of the individual. In a study, it has been observed that upto age of 60, there is normal process of planning in an individual. As the cognitive function declines after age 60, there is requirement of more level of search and cognitive function required for the future planning. Hence, it has been proved that dementia is related to the development of planning in an individual (Kstering et al., 2014). Societal Implication: It has been observed that patients residing in the society are with fewer symptoms of dementia as compared to the patients residing in the hospitals (Frisoni et al., 1999). Intervention of the dementia mainly comprises of emotional support and therapeutic intervention. Therapeutic intervention comprises of drug treatment and rehabilitation. Emotional interventions include increasing awareness of the responsible factors for the stress due to dementia, helping individual for the development of adaptive process to cope with the discomfort and giving moral boost for the psychological and emotional well-being of the person. It has been observed that persons identity can be lost due to dementia. This is due to loss of working ability or skills and social isolation of the individual. In such scenario emotional and psychological intervention is proved to be useful. Psychological therapy is useful in the improving emotional stability of the individual (Cheston Bender, 1999). Person centered counseling keeps patient at the center of the process. In this person centered approach there should be good communication between the patient and nurse or physician and patient should be more socially exposed. In recent times person centered approach proved to be useful for the treatment of dementia (Feltham Horton, 2000). Information and education to the patients of dementia is required in the form of information about dementia, treatment options for dementia, getting help from the physician, information about the dementia organizations, legal issues about dementia. Prospective: Correct identification of the clinical symptoms and proper implementation of the intervention is very much required for dementia patients. Because there is no established model for the clinical diagnosis of the dementia patients and moreover, symptoms of dementia overlap with other psychological conditions. Pathogenesis of these symptoms is not well understood and current observations from the research, it has been established that pathogenesis is multifactorial. Specific interventions should be implemented based on the identified mechanisms of causes and symptoms of the diseases. Currently there is implementation of combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment for the patient with dementia. However, there should be advancement in the more non-pharmacological treatment for dementia which would be safer as compared to the pharmacological treatments. In terms of pharmacological treatments drug should be developed which would be more effective, safer and specific to the particular symptom (Cerejeira, et al., 2012). Most of the studies related to the cognitive development studies were conducted in small number of population. If these studies of cognitive development theory would have been conducted in large population, people incorporating diverse cultures, different socioeconomic classes and people from the different geographical areas, there would have been more understanding on the subjects. It would have been helpful in the development of globally accepted cognitive development theories. Future directions of research should be in the direction of conducting studies to get broader outcome. Summary: In this essay , research question discussed is dementia related to development from adolescence to late adulthood. Initially, in this essay terminologies related to the dementia and development in the human being are discussed. It is evident that, in dementia there is memory loss and consequently loss of the physical activity in the individual. This loss in the memory leads to the abnormal characters in the individual which affects physical, psychological and social wellbeing of the individual. These changes are predictable in the individual through observations, however, these changes in the individual are confounding with the other psychological issues. Hence, it would be difficult to make correct diagnosis of dementia. These dementia patients couldnt be able to express their feelings verbally in accurate way, hence they should develop adaptive processes which can be understand by caretakers. Dementia prevents psychological development of the patient and patients overall behavior returns to the level of child behavior. This condition of the patient would be very disturbing for the care taker. Dementia patients all the physical and behavioral activities are very similar to the children like imitation, egocentric behavior, and language skills. Moreover, these patients perform work in more unorganized way as compared to the children. Piagets theory can be effectively applied in the study of developmental phycology in dementia patients. Originally Piagets theory was developed for the developmental analysis of the children and adolescence, however few researchers applied Piagets theory for the evaluation of the psychological assessment of dementia in adults. Few of the researchers utilized different frameworks and tasks in the original form, however few researchers applied these frameworks and tasks with slight modifications. Application of Piagets theory proved helpful in the finding difference between the normal adult individuals and dementia patients. In his theory Piaget also mentioned about the different stages like sensorimotor and preoperational stages. These dementia patients pass through these stages and it would be feasible to implement specific intervention for the specific stage of the dementia disease in particular individual. Trend of acquisition of new skills is completely opposite in Piagets theory and dementia patients. In dementia patients acquisition of new skills decreases with age while according to Piagets theory acquisition of new skills increases with age. In recent times, studies were conducted to evaluate dementia from different perspectives. Study was conducted to understand the experience of children whose parents were with dementia and it was observed that these children were associated with high level of stress due to their parents. Study was also conducted to evaluate effectiveness of diagnostic techniques in dementia. From this it was concluded that, there is the requirement of evaluation of diagnostic techniques in people with different cultures to get global acceptability of the diagnostic technique. Study was also conducted to evaluate relationship between memory impairment and memory function. Form this study, it is evident that along with memory impairment other psychological factors are also responsible for loss of memory function. Study conducted on the evaluation of requirement of cognitive ability in future planning, it is evident that after certain age there is requirement of high level research and cognitive ability for future planning. Social involvement of the dementia patient is very much essential for the improvement in the disease. There is the availability of emotional, psychological and therapeutic interventions for management of dementia. Emotional and psychological interventions are proved to be more effective for the management of the dementia because in these interventions there is incorporation of person centered care. Future directions for research in dementia and psychological development include correct identification of the symptoms, development of specific intervention for the particular symptom, identification of mechanism behind different causes and symptoms of the disease. More preference should be given to the development of non-pharmacological interventions. Most importantly, these cognitive development studies in dementia should be carried with incorporation of large number of participants and with people from diverse culture and geographical areas. References: Barca, M.L, Thorsen, K., Engedal, K., Haugen, P.K, Johannessen A. (2014). Nobody asked me how I felt: experiences of adult children of persons with young-onset dementia. International Psychogeriatric, 26(12), 1935-44. Cerejeira, J., Lagarto, L., Mukaetova-Ladinska, E. B. (2012). Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia. Frontiers in Neurology, 3, 73. PMCID: PMC3345875. Cheston, R., Bender, M. (1999). 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